Periodontology or periodontics is a specialty of Dentistry that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases, which are divided into two major groups: gingivitis and periodontitis.
Periodontitis and gingivitis
are diseases that affect the set of tissues that include the gums, bone and periodontal ligament, responsible for maintaining the firmness of teeth in the jaw, and are the result of the accumulation of bacteria in the tissues of the oral cavity.
The deposit of plaque and tartar in the groove between the gums and the teeth causes a chronic inflammation that, in addition to causing pain in the gums, destroys all the tissues that support the teeth.
Although anyone with poor oral hygiene can develop gum inflammation - swelling, bleeding and sometimes pain in the gums - some factors, such as pregnancy, puberty, poorly positioned teeth or the use of difficult-to-sanitize dentures, enhance the appearance of this pathology.
Not being promptly diagnosed and treated, this inflammation of the gums evolves and ends up becoming a more serious and complex problem: periodontitis. Bone loss becomes irreversible, teeth begin to wag and even fall out. Stress, smoking, genetic factors or diseases such as diabetes are risk factors for the onset of periodontitis.
Periodontitis affects a large part of the population and is responsible for most tooth loss in adult patients.